Alcohol affects the central nervous system as a depressant, resulting in a decrease of activity and inhibitions. Even a low level of alcohol within the body slows reactions. Concentration and judgment become impaired, and in excessive amounts, intoxication or poisoning results.
Alcohol irritates the gastrointestinal tract, causing an erosion of the stomach lining, resulting in nausea and vomiting. Liver disease (hepatic cirrhosis) may develop with long-term use of alcohol. The cardiovascular system is compromised and sexual dysfunction can occur. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause problems for the developing fetus known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
Changes in tolerance occur as alcohol dependence develops and memory lapses related to drinking episodes may follow.
Signs and symptoms of alcohol abuse may include:
OPIOID (PAINKILLER) ABUSE
The most powerful prescription painkillers are opioids, which are made to react on the nervous system the same way as opium, morphine (a powerful painkiller that is highly addictive) or heroin. Continued use or abuse of opioids can result in physical dependence and addiction. Withdrawal symptoms that can appear with decrease or absence of the drug include restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, confusion, diarrhea, vomiting and cold flashes.
These medications include Oxycodone, Hydrocodone, Fentanyl and Meperidine. The common brand names are Oxycontin, Percocet, Roxicet, Roxiprin, Vicodin, Dilaudid, etc. Some “street” names include oxy, roxy, hillbilly heroin, percs, vikes, dillies, pain killer, juice, M, etc.
Opioids have both mental and physiological effects such as constipation, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, unconsciousness, respiratory depression and slowed breathing, risk of heart attack, coma and death. Opioids are primarily used in a pill or tablet form and are taken orally, crushed and snorted or IV injected.
Signs and symptoms of opioid (painkiller) abuse may include:
**Kratom, also known by the street names Herbal Speedball, Ketum or Thom, comes from a tree in Southeast Asia. Its leaves contain a psychoactive opioid compound and is used in place of Opioids (Pain Killers). Kratom is not currently an illegal substance and has been easy to order on the Internet in recent years. Most recently, Kratom has become available in store fronts, sold as a green powder in packets labeled “not for human consumption.” It is also sometimes sold as an extract or gum.
Some people who abuse Kratom do so in attempt to circumvent medical treatment for withdrawl symptoms and cravings caused by addiction to opioids and/or alcohol. There is no scientific evidence that Kratom is effective or safe for this purpose.
Signs and Symptoms of Kratom abuse may include:
Stimulants include: Cocaine, Crack, Amphetamines, Methamphetamines, etc. Regular users of stimulants may exhibit irritability, restlessness, sleep disturbance, tremors, skin flushing and weight loss over time. Continued use leads to overall physical and health failure, heart palpitations, energy loss, swallowing problems, insomnia, respiratory distress, unconsciousness, nose bleeds and nasal damage (resulting from snorting), trembling, seizures, nausea and vomiting. Along with the many physical consequences, stimulant abuse may create psychiatric effects which include suicidal behavior, anxiety, depression, memory loss, blackouts, paranoia, panic states, delusions, poor concentration, compulsive behavior and loss of interest in friends, family, physical appearance and non-drug related activities.
Signs and symptoms of stimulant abuse may include:
CLUB DRUG ABUSE
In the past, the term “club drugs” was a vague term that referred to the designer drugs that had been used frequently in the school system, night clubs, college campuses, and all-night, underground parties called Raves. Because most of these drugs are odorless, flavorless and colorless, these drugs can be impossible to detect. Included in this category are Ecstasy (MDMA), Special K (Ketamine), GHB, Roofies (Rohypnol), Clarity, and LSD. Because of underground “street labs” and “cooking kitchens,” the drug sources, pharmacological agents, and chemicals used to manufacture these drugs, it is difficult to determine the toxicity, consequences, and symptoms that may occur with each “batch.” However, common to most of these “club drugs,” physical effects include damage to the serotonin-containing neurons in the brain, along with a variety of behavioral and cognitive consequences, and memory loss.
Ecstasy (MDMA) is similar to the stimulant Amphetamine and the hallucinogen Mescaline. Effects last from 3-6 hours. Confusion, depression, sleep disturbance, anxiety, and paranoia have been reported, even weeks after the drug is taken. Also, MDMA may cause increased heart rate and elevated blood pressure. MDMA can lead to dehydration, hypertension, heart and/or kidney failure. In high doses, decreased body temperature causes muscle breakdown, kidney and cardiovascular failure, and possible death. MDMA use has resulted in heart attacks, strokes, seizures, and fatalities.
GHB (Gamma-hydroxybutyrate) can be a clear liquid, white powder, or in capsule form. Overdosing on GHB (also called the date rape drug) can occur easily due to the inconsistency in manufacturing (street labs and home “cooking kitchens”). GHB directly attacks the central nervous system, sedating the body. GHB use may cause drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, headache, loss of consciousness, impaired breathing, coma, and possible death.
Special K (Ketamine) in its injectable form is an anesthetic that was developed for use in veterinarian medicine. When in its liquid or powdered form, Ketamine is commonly used in combination with marijuana or tobacco products. Ketamine use may cause amnesia, impaired motor functions, high blood pressure, depression, and fatal respiratory problems. At the very least, Ketamine use will cause impaired attention, decreased concentration, and memory loss.
Roofies (Rohypnol) is a benzodiazepine (such as Valium, Halcion, Xanax) which is about 10 times more potent than Valium. Rohypnol is flavorless and odorless. Users crush the pills and snort the powder, sprinkle it on marijuana and smoke it, dissolve it in a drink or inject it. Because it is virtually undetectable in beverages, it has been used to commit sexual assault, giving it the reputation of the “date rape” drug. The sedative and toxic effects can impair the user for up to 12 hours. Rohypnol use may cause profound amnesia and confusion. (Rohypnol is sometimes referred to as the forget-me-not drug). Adverse side effects include decreased blood pressure, visual disturbances, confusion, amnesia, liver/kidney damage, and possible death.
These synthetic drugs are manufactured to chemically resemble illicit drugs but may be purchased legally because drug manufacturers constantly change the chemical structure to circumvent drug laws. Synthetic cathinones and methcathinones are the main groups of chemicals in use. Since these synthetic drugs have not been approved for human consumption or medical use, their long-term effects are unknown, yet potentially severe.
Street names may include:
These drugs interact with the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) to depress cognitive activities. They include sedatives (used to make a person calm or drowsy) and tranquilizers (intended to reduce tension and anxiety).
Sometimes called “downers” or “benzos” (short for benzodiazepine) these drugs come in tablet, capsule or liquid form. Some drugs in this category are: Xanax, Valium, Halcion, Librium, Ativan, Klonopin, Seroquel, Zyprexa, Seconal, Phenobarbital, Amytal, and Haldol.
The effects of depressants are similar to alcohol and range from short to very long lasting. The abuser can rapidly develop a high tolerance, which increases the need for escalating dosages to maintain the desired effect. As dependency on the drug increases, cravings, anxiety and panic are common if the user is unable to get more.
Withdrawal may be severe and potentially lethal. Symptoms of withdrawal may include delirium, hallucinations, anxiety, tremors, weakness, abdominal cramps, nausea, high body temperature, convulsions, spatial and time disorientation, seizures, respiratory failure, heart failure and even death.
Symptoms of sedative/hypnotic/depressant abuse may include:
The primary effects of marijuana and hashish are behavioral because the drug affects the central nervous system. Both marijuana and hashish decrease one’s ability to perform tasks requiring a great deal of coordination (such as driving a car). Visual tracking is impaired and the sense of time is prolonged. Learning is greatly affected because the drug diminishes the ability to concentrate. Frequent users may experience a loss of energy, lack of concentration, memory loss, decreased performance at work/school, and a general lack of ambition.
Other effects may include blood-shot eyes; increased heart rate and blood pressure; bronchial irritation; sinusitis; and asthma in heavy users; decreased fertility; and possible detrimental effects upon the immune system.
Regular users may also experience agitation, insomnia, irritability, and anxiety over a period of time.
Signs and symptoms of marijuana/hashish abuse may include:
**Synthetic marijuana, known by several street names such as Spice, K2, Black Mamba and Fake Weed, is a synthetic cannabinoid manufactured to chemically resemble THC but may be purchased legally because drug manufacturers constantly change the chemical structure to circumvent drug laws. Synthetic Cannabinoids are usually sold combined with herbs and aim to mimic the effects of cannabis. They are usually smoked or occasionally drunk as a tea. These drugs have not been approved for human consumption or medical use, so the long-term effects are unknown, yet potentially severe.
Signs and symptoms of Synthetic Cannabinoid abuse are similar to those of Marijuna, but may also include:
The effects of inhalant abuse can include severe headaches, nausea, fainting, accelerated heartbeat and vomiting. Common Inhalants of Abuse are Glue, “Whip-Its” (Nitrous Oxide found in Whipped Cream Cans), Cleaning Products (Such as Computer Dusters and other cleaning materials) and Lighter Fluids. Since the drugs are absorbed through the respiratory tract, adverse effects associated with inhalant abuse include liver or kidney damage, convulsions, damage to the lungs, stroke, anemia, peripheral neuropathy, brain damage and sudden death.
Signs and symptoms of inhalant abuse may include:
Commonly abused hallucinogens include PCP, LSD, psilocybin (mushrooms), and peyote (a cactus plant containing mescaline). Most hallucinogens share common effects of use. Any portion of sensory perceptions may be altered to varying degrees. The “seeing” of sounds and the “hearing” of colors are common side effects. Hallucinogens are commonly associated with panic attacks at the height of the drug experience. Depersonalization, acute anxiety, and acute depression have also been noted as a result of hallucinogen abuse.
Signs and symptoms of hallucinogen abuse may include:
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